Provides chickenpox that pneumonia

The lives of elderly patients with broken ribs are being put at risk because emergency departments and GPs are failing to refer them for up-to-date assessment and treatment.Breathing difficulties caused by these injuries can lead to the lung infection pneumonia, which is especially dangerous for older people.A revolutionary two-hour procedure that involves implanting flexible titanium splints to support the fractures while they heal was approved for NHS use in 2010, and has been shown to slash lung infection rates.But according to DePuy Synthes, which manufactures the unique Matrix Rib Fixation System, the implants have been used only in a total of 350 cases – although the Health & Social Care Information Centre say there were 29,401 hospital consultations involving rib fractures last year alone.
A revolutionary two-hour procedure that involves implanting flexible titanium splints to support the fractures while they heal was approved for NHS use in 2010, pictured is how the operation worksPatients suffering from the bone-thinning disease osteoporosis, who can suffer a broken rib after a severe coughing fit, are ideal candidates for the implants, according to experts.However, as the £12,000 procedure is new and little data exists about its effectiveness, the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), which provides guidelines for doctors, lists it only as a treatment for severe fractures in which the ribs become completely detached.
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This condition, flail chest, is typically only seen in trauma cases, such as car accidents. Yet studies have shown that, in critical care cases where rib fracture is sustained, implanting splints reduces pneumonia infections from 80 per cent to 20 per cent.Far more patients could benefit than are currently offered the surgery, according to Marco Scarci, a chest surgeon at the UKs largest specialist heart and lung treatment facility at Papworth Hospital. In the past six months, thanks to a push to raise awareness of the new procedure, referrals for assessment by Scarci and his team have risen drama-tically. But he says: Most GPs and doctors still dont even know rib fixation is an option.
The lives of elderly patients with broken ribs are being put at risk because hospitals and GPs are failing to use up-to-date treatmentPapworth is expected to carry out 150 rib fixation operations over the next year. Mr Scarci says: In our experience patients with all kinds of rib fracture can benefit.Anyone who looks like they will spend a lot of time in hospital due to the pain of such an injury, and is at risk of complications, is a potential candidate.Patients can be in so much pain they cannot breathe properly. This means bacteria can accumulate, causing infections that become pneumonia. These injuries are common in elderly, frail patients, and can trigger infections that can be fatal. Not every patient will be suitable but they need to be assessed.The vast majority of fatalities from pneumonia – about 80 per cent of the total of 30,000 in 2012, the most recently recorded year – were in the over-85s.Currently rib fixation is only offered by a limited number of specialist centres, including Papworth, and Guys and St Thomas in London. Prior to the development of rib fixation, the only treatment was external strapping and pain relief.In young and healthy patients, the healing process can be straightforward. But in some cases, the fracture can cause debilitating pain and leave the patient with a chest deformity.The Mail on Sunday first revealed the breakthrough in rib surgery in 2012. Tom Routledge, the surgeon who pioneered the technique, said: Ribs are like dry twigs and they can break very easily.This also makes them very difficult to repair. The implant stabilises the fracture, pulling the ribs back into place, which relieves the pain straight away.The operation takes about two hours under general anaesthetic. First, the surgeon makes a small incision and inserts a thin, flexible titanium metal plate shaped to fit the anatomical contours of the rib. Each pre-made plate is about half an inch wide and varies in length from 2in to 5in, depending on which rib it is being used for.The plate can be either slid into place over the surface of the bone to bridge the fracture, or else inserted inside the bone, depending on the location and severity of the break. Screws hold them in place, and the plates are left in permanently.One patient who has benefited is Richard Smith, 63, from Cambridge. He suffered ten broken ribs when his sons performed CPR after his heart stopped on Fathers Day two years ago.The damage from the broken ribs was so severe that it affected my recovery and I could have died, he said. The reason my heart stopped was because I had already been ill with pneumonia. But at the hospital they were having difficulty clearing the infection because my ribs were broken and I could hardly breathe.The implant operation undoubtedly helped me pull through. 

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An unusual comet that is unlike anything seen before by scientists is expected to become visible from Earth in the coming weeks.Nasa and the European Space Agencys Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, also called SOHO, spotted the comet as it skimmed past the sun.The is not thought to belong to any known family of comets and scientists have been left baffled as to how it survived its close encounter with the sun.Scroll down for videos 
Comet SOHO2875 can be seen developing a tail in the image above as it moves away from the sun while a coronal mass ejection – an eruption of solar material – is thrown out into space by from the suns surfaceThe comet raced past the star at the centre of our solar system at a distance of just 2.2 million miles from the suns surface.
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COMETS ARE LIKE FRIED ICE CREAM If youve ever bitten into deep fried ice cream, you might have experienced a taste and texture that was out of this world – in more ways than one.Thats because, according to Nasa, the structure of Comet 67P – which Esas Rosetta spacecraft is currently orbiting – resembles the popular dessert.In an experiment, they found that while the exterior of a comet is encased in a hard, outer crust, the interior would mostly be fluffy ice.The scientists said the crust is made of crystalline ice while the interior is colder and porous. Organic molecules like those found on Comet 67P are like a final layer of chocolate on top.  Most comets that come that close do not survive the trip, according to solar scientists who study images beamed back by SOHO.Yet this comet managed to survive, said Dr Karl Battams, a solar scientist at the Naval Reearch Laboratory in Washington DC.However, he warned the close encounter with the sun may have taken its toll.He said: Theres a half-decent chance that ground observers might be able to detect it in the coming weeks.But its also possible that events during its trip around the sun will cause it to die fairly fast.Scientists are now attempting to calculate the path the new comet.SOHO was initally designed to study the internal structure of the sun and the huge explosions that send the solar wind racing across the solar system.However, it has also become a major source of comet discoveries as these giant balls of ice and rock light up as they encounter the intense streams of ionized gas that is thrown out by the sun. 
Unusual comet skims past the sun and survives encounter
Now SOHO has discovered 2,875 comets. Most belong to the Kreutz family, which all broke off from a single giant comet many centuries ago.This latest comet, however, does not bear any resemblance to these other comets nor any other family known. Such non-group comets only occur a few times a year.In a video released by Nasa the comet can be seen appearing on Febuary 19 and taking a huge curving path away from the sun.Towards the end of the video, as the comet begins to develop a tail, a coronal mass ejection from the sun throws huge amonts of solar material into space.
Why sun-grazing comets have increased in number over decades